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A Description of the Formation of the Rainbow

A Description of the Formation of the Rainbow

The rainbow is one of the most splendid masterpieces of nature. It is a demonstration of the scientific process of dispersion of light founded on the principle that white light is made up of varied wavelengths; each having a distinct color. It can only be observed in an atmosphere filled with suspensions of water droplets or mist. To view it, an observer must be inclined at 400 above the ground. Each water droplet acts as a small prism that refracts and disperses light rays back to the observer’s eye. As one looks into the sky, he observes different colors depending on their wavelengths. This leads to the formation of a circular arc in the sky. Dispersion, internal reflection, and refraction of light rays are the major principles responsible for the formation of the rainbow. Historically, Aristotle (the Greek scholar) became the first person to devote his attention to unraveling the mystery of the formation of the rainbow.essay online It was not until his death that more rainbow theories got formulated. Among them include Seneca Younger (the Roman philosopher) and Huseyin Gazi Topdemir (the Persian physicist) who provided the first scientific explanation about the rainbow phenomenon (Raymond & Alistair, 2001).

The rainbow appears as a spherical arc in the blue skies. To the observers, only a half-circle with red color appears bowed. However, when viewed from the sky, it appears as a complete circle. This is because those observing it from the ground can only view top half of its circle as the bottom arc is blocked from their view by the ground. The half-circle observed by the viewers arises from the fact that there are numerous collections of droplets within the atmosphere that have the ability to concentrate or condense the dispersed lights at 40-420 angles relative to their original path (Davis & Schweiger, 2002). Each of the water droplets takes part in the formation of a circular arc by reflecting and dispersing sunrays towards the observer.

All the droplets in the arc refract and disperse the whole visible light spectrum of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet (ROYGBIV) colors. However, the degree of refraction varies with the wavelength of each constituent light. Therefore, red light gets refracted from the droplet at a steeper angle than does the blue light spectrum. An observer on the ground standing at a steeper angle will see red light following a refraction process involving water droplets (Buick, 2010). Although blue light from water droplets also get refracted, it cannot be viewed by the observer. This is because it is refracted at relatively steeper angle compared to red light. It is directed towards a path passing over the viewer’s head. Therefore, it is only the red light that is visible to an observer standing at a steeper angle on the ground.

On the other hand, when an observer is at a less steep angle, water droplets within the line of sight direct blue light towards the observer’s eye. Red light gets refracted at a deeper angle towards the feet of the observer. For this reason, an observer at such angles will only see blue light. These differences in the refraction of lights of different wavelengths explain why the red light is seen at the outer most perimeter of the rainbow while blue light forms the inner most perimeter and main point here of these rainbow (Lynch & Livingston, 2001).



Heart, the driving force. The constant and steady contraction and relaxation of the cardiac muscle is what ensures the continuum of life. The heart is essentially responsible for provision of nutritional products from food to cellular level. This is executed by ensuring perfusion of all the organs of the body with blood which is made possible by the seemingly inexhaustible contractions of the heart muscle.https://payforessay.net/buy-essay With every beat, the heart pumps blood into the circulation. Each beat is followed by a small period of relaxation during which the heart fills up with blood to be pumped during the next beat. Once in the circulation the blood travels through the arteries into smaller and smaller arteries until it reaches the capillaries where the nutrients in the blood are finally exchanged with the cells for waste products and carbon dioxide produced from cellular metabolism. The blood then carries this waste product from the cells back into circulation via the vessels, now veins. These veins gradually increase in their caliber until they finally reach the heart which first pumps it into the lungs in order to oxygenate the carbon dioxide rich blood and finally pumps it into circulation again. Taking the heart out of the equation would mean imperative death for all the metabolic cycles held responsible to sustain the body and thus mean inevitable death.

From microscopic theory to macroscopic reality. Having established the importance of the cardiac muscle one questions the invariable ability of this fist sized organ to keep working through out a person’s life span. Moreover the synchronized contraction appears to be explicitly innate for the cardiac muscle compared to any other muscle in the body. This specificity of the cardiac musculature has to do with its histological uniqueness. The cardiac muscle fibres are like the skeletal muscle fibres in regards to the sarcoplasm, the sarcoplasmic reticulum and T tubules. However, the ion channels differ from those of skeletal fibres. The cardiac fibres have slow calcium channels in addition to fast sodium channels that are also present in skeletal fibres. Also the cardiac fibres unlike other muscle fibres in the body are connected together by intercalated discs. These discs provide permeable communicating junctions which allow free flow of ions(Guyton and Hall 2006). This ion flow in turn is necessary for generating the action potential responsible for the coordinated cardiac contraction.

As the action potential or electrical current spreads over the muscle sarcolemma and to the T tubules there is a release of calcium ions through voltage gated calcium channels from the muscle sarcoplasm into the reticulum. This allows the ions to bind to troponin which results in actin and myosin, the contractile units of the muscles to slide over one another which becomes apparent as a contraction. Thus when one of the fibres become stimulated the entire musculature behaves as single unit and contracts as one. As the calcium concentration decreases the ions unbind from troponin and the crossbridges formed by actin and myosin are dismantled and both the myofibrils assume their relaxed positions conforming their relaxed position. Afterwards the calcium is moved back into the reticulum with the help of energy dependent pumps called Ca-ATPase(Silverthorn 1988). In addition unlike skeletal and smooth muscle fibres the calcium is also removed via the sodium calcium exchange pump in the cardiac fibres. Macroscopically the action potential manifests as a contraction of the myocardium. The upper part of the heart designated as the atria contract first while the ventricles contract with a slight delay. Unlike contractions elsewhere in the body the cardiac contractions can be graded. The force of contraction can be varied depending upon the number of calcium unveiled.

The Development and Future Perspectives of E-Commerce

The Development and Future Perspectives of E-Commerce

The introduction of smart-phones, portable electronic devices, and tablets has revolutionized electronic commerce. It is defines as the extensive application of information technology and the internet for communication, trade, socialization, and monetary transfers. Since 2000, the numbers of business transactions conducted via online platforms have more than tripled. May (2000) established that e-commerce accounts for over 60% of retail transactions globally.buying a paper Information technology has directly impacted on the business sector by expanding customer bases, increasing product information symmetry, and improving product/service quality. Internet serves as an interactive medium where the business community congregates and transacts. Besides, this medium helps in eliminating geographic barriers to trade and commerce. E-commerce is critical in the strengthening of customer relations as well expansion of market capitalization.

Technological diffusion and innovation are keys to electronic commerce. Their advancements have led to the acceleration of online trade. Computerized devices have been evolving since their introduction, with more user-friendly alternatives getting developed. These additional features make them highly adoptable and multi-functional, thus helping in business management. Mariga (2003) pointed out that the introduction of online commerce has resulted in the widening of customer base globally. Through e-commerce, the word has become ‘one global village’ where people freely interact; a process that leads to the broadening of market bases. For instance, in an interview, Ms Goldfeld (the Paypal director for the Sub-Saharan Africa) revealed that their company has over 50 million clients in the 212 countries in which it operates. This is an indication that electronic commerce helps in the expansion of a firm’s areas of operation.

In a study titled “The Cost of Doing Trans-boundary Businesses”, Plant (2000) established that e-commerce and related technologies reduce the costs of doing multinational business by approximately 21%. Through e-technologies, buyers have access to a range of products and services at relatively affordable costs. They can acquire their preferred products or services at the comfort of their seats. Therefore, travelling-related costs are abolished. This has been made possible by the development of online-shopping malls; where customers order for goods through the website. The orders are then shipped to the customers at discounted shipping charges. This technology has also led to a drastic drop in transaction costs involved in multinational business operations. As a result, merchants enjoy increased profit margins.

According to Goldstein and O'Connor (2000), e-commerce increases market capitalization. Perfect examples of companies that currently enjoy higher market capitalization and better economies of scale are E-bay and Amazon. Though the two have countable retail outlets globally, they have been successful than Barnes & Noble Ltd. that has 1000 decentralized outlets. Many multinational companies have introduced web-based businesses in order to compete fairly with other players. Stiff competition for limited market share has prompted small firms to reconsider their position on adopting electronic commerce. A cost-benefit analysis conducted by Epstein (2004) showed that infant firms equally reap economic gains from e-technologies. This is an indication that e-commerce has the capacity to improve a firm’s profitability performance through increased marketability, enlarge customer base, reduce cost of doing institutions, and escalate competitiveness.

Historically the people of Haida-Gwai raised poles to mark special occasions in their history and daily lives such as the celebration of their heroes and mockery of their rivals.

Historically the people of Haida-Gwai raised poles to mark special occasions in their history and daily lives such as the celebration of their heroes and mockery of their rivals.

The practice seemed to have died but was revived recently with a celebration that had several artistic significances. This is because the event symbolized the return to the traditional way of life and passage of pole carving techniques and other artistic features from one generation to the next.buying an essay This paper takes a look at the artistic significance of the celebration.

To start with one pole, the ‘legacy pole’ was raised at the shoreline of the Lyell Island in southern Haida-Gwai. This pole commemorated the anniversary of the two agreements that resulted in the establishment of the Gwai Haanas National park Reserve and the Haida Heritage Site (KIRKBY 2014). The pole was careful designed in a process that took over a year. This was as a result of the hard work required in designing the pole as it had to conform to the occasion i.e. the carves and images on the pole were to match the occasion thereby its artistic significance.

This preserve occupies an area of about 1,470km2 about 15% of Haida Gwai. No pole had been raised for the past 130 years because the tradition almost died out as a result of its condemnation by the western missionaries who accused it of helping in paganism and transmission of other diseases (Hitchcock 2014). This return to traditional practices of pole carving and raising was the artistic significance of the pole raising.

The pole was designed by a 33 year old artistic hero who used a 500 year old cedar from Port Clements. The pole had traditional symbols illustrating the history of the park, how the park is exceptional and what it meant to its founders. This was clearly an artistic work that required high dedication hence again the artistic significance of the pole raising ceremony.

The raising of the poles is a conservation of the people’s traditions. The new poles have a variety of relationships to the existing poles as well as the families that raise them. In the present day there are organizations that identify ‘intangible heritage’ and raise them to give voice to the otherwise voiceless people in the society. There are values that such organizations aim to keep and they are in line with the traditions of pole rising. This is another artistic significance of the pole raising as it brought to life traditional carving techniques as well as their passage to the next generation.

From the above it is beyond doubt that the recent poles raised had several artistic significances such as the revival of the traditional practices as well as passing the practices to the next generation and conservation of the environment. Traditional practices of carving were brought to life through the design of images that were to be on the poles to mark the special celebration. Clearly this got quite a few artistic significances.



Drugs are chemicals affecting the normal performing this whole body. Delicate drugs are the ones that are viewed as of having minimal effects on the fitness of end users and they are no-addicting. An example of a mild pill is cannabis. Rules of comfortable prescription drugs has sketched simultaneously detrimental and pessimistic reviews pertaining to their use; this depends on the advantages and disadvantages of making use of like harmful drugs.editing papers for money Notwithstanding, with the properties on a users as well as world, the many benefits of legalizing its use is a lot in excess of its adverse reactions.

The benefit of legalizing tender medications is your impact on the judicial mechanism. Reported by The benefit of legalizing softer medication is your result on the judicial network, David Boyum states in the usa that, “drug-connected convictions are the reason for above 30% of overall convictions in america. The illegality of medicine is not going to stop end users from utilizing them.” Much more, prohibitions strengthen value of the pill greatly because it is provided a brown field situation. As a result traffickers to maximise the quantity of the medicinal drugs trafficked to generate their money though participants move to drastic lengths, most notably participating in illegal exercises, to finance their dependency. Legalizing making use of silky medicinal drugs will, accordingly, decrease the road appeal and work out it more and more available to you, and thus decreasing the price of medication-relevant convictions.

In the states, greater than $49 billion dollars is devoted yearly to impose the prohibition of tablet mistreatment. In addition, even more than 19,000 folks are an element of pill enforcement firms at the expense of other troublesome crimes . As stated by doctors, Legal guidelines of fluffy substances will be responsible for capital deals by your governing administration. This find could gross $40billion every year. However, tax bill profits which will be found by like legal guidelines will most be corresponding to that picked up from booze and prescription drug; early quotations specify that income tax cash flow from marijuana by yourself could smacked $8 billion us dollars. This money can assist with the lowering of national and condition deficits, causing them to be alot more best for the individuals.

Lobbyists for this legalization of cushioned prescriptions state that the effective use of recreational pills is known as a unique judgment that should not be inhibited by a area. Immorality of pharmaceutical use is general and according to the attitudes of diverse adult men and women. For some it will be inappropriate, despite the fact that to other folks it is really suitable. Much more the dangerous outcomes of entertaining prescription medications only alter the end users, many of that be aware of the hazards entailed . Nevertheless, setting these participants while others involved in the medicine work in prison considerably has an effect on their mates and people. That way the conflict with prescription drugs posesses a unfavourable results not just on all those inside the pill communities but additionally splatters onto thirdly persons.

Revision von wirtschaftliche Publikation Firma für Polytechnikern

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